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Bahá'í Chronology - The Ministry of Bahá'u'lláh - 20 B.E. (A.D. 1863-1864)
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< 19 B.E. | 21 B.E. >
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• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• March A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh celebrates the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163]
__________ __________
• Jamál 9 Bahá 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• Sunday 26 March A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
__________ __________
• Kamál 10 Bahá 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• Monday 27 March A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.

  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]

  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.

  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.

  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Bag̲h̲dád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• March / April A.D. 1863
• A.M.
At some point prior to the public declaration in the Garden of Ridván, Bahá'u'lláh confides in His Son that He is the One promised by the Báb. [CH82]
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• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 18 April A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston.
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• Ridván 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 22 April - 3 May A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]

__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 22 April A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wears a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]

    Bahá'u'lláh enters the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer is being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]

On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]

  • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]

On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:

  1. He forbids the use of the sword.
  2. He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
  3. He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawḥ-i-Ayyúb for Ḥájí Muḥammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]

During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• April A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Mírzá Yaḥyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
  • CH59 says that he left Bag̲h̲dád about two weeks before the larger party.
  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yaḥyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yaḥyá's movements.
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 30 April A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh's family joins Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]

  • This initiates the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 3 May A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

  • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in S̲h̲íráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
  • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 9 May A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

  • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They pass through the following:
    
    Judaydih
    Dilí-'Abbás
    Qarih-Tapih
    Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    Dúst-Khurmátú
    Táwuq
    Karkúk (stay two days)
    Irbíl
    By the River Záb
    Bartallih
    Mosul (stay three days)
    Zák̲h̲ú
    Jazírih
    Nisíbín
    Ḥasan-Áqá
    Márdiín
    Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
    Ma'dan-Mis
    K̲h̲árpút (stay two or three days)
    Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    Dilik-Tás̲h̲
    Sívás
    Túqát
    Amasia (stay two days)
    Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) 
    [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953:
    Information Statistical & Comparative
    p43]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 13 August A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 16 August A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople at noon. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and new numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Baha'i Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha'i History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 16 August / 1 December A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]

News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]

Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yaḥyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]

Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]

  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.

    On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]

__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• c. August / November A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body is buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203]
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 19 October A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Bell (Subhánika-Yá-Hú). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Ḥájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 1 December A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

  • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • Kúc̲h̲ik-C̲h̲akmac̲h̲ih
    Buyúk-C̲h̲akmac̲h̲ih
    Salvarí
    Birkás
    Bábás
    Bábá-Iskí
              
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• 12 December A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
__________ __________
• 20 B.E.
• A.H.
• probably near end A.D. 1863
• A.M.
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

Chronological list of significant events related to 
Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
Fall of the French Monarchy (1870) Virtual Extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870) Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876) Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín S̲h̲áh (1896) Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Ḥamíd II (1909) Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910) Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916) Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917) Fall of the German Monarchy (1918) Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918) Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918) Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922) Collapse of the Caliphate (1924) Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925) Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931) Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938) Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941) Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946) Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946) Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
[The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953:
Information Statistical & Comparative
p41-42]
__________ __________
• 20 / 21 B.E.
• A.H.
• A.D. 1864
• A.M.
Birth of Mírzá Hádí S̲h̲írází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in S̲h̲íráz.
__________ __________
• 20 / 21 B.E.
• A.H.
• A.D. 1864
• A.M.
Mírzá Yaḥyá makes an attempt on Bahá'u'lláh's life in the public bath see Ch60, BKG227–30, CB82–3, GPB166 and RB2:158–61.
[ABBC Online] [ABBC #]
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< 19 B.E. | 21 B.E. >
___________________
Most of the Gregorian Calendar dates, A.H. 1166 (A.D. 1753) to present, are from the original book, A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. The Hebrew, Islamic and Bahá'í dates were calculated by the ABG staff and may be subject to error, despite the great care that was taken. When the Gregorian date is "In the year", "c. Mar 1797", etc., we list the nearest approximate Hebrew, Islamic and Bahá'í dates.
 
Notes:
  • The dates in the left column do not always match the dates in the text. This is due to the plethora of calculations and calculators available. We use the calendar conversions from Calendar Home - Convert a date.
  • Continuous time periods, e.g., Monday thru Friday or June thru August, are annotated as Monday / Friday and June / August rather than Monday-Friday and June-August in all four calendars. This is to avoid confusion with Islamic days and months which contain a hyphen (or dash), e.g. Yawm ath-Thulatha', Jumadá al-akhirah.
  • Date Format = Day of the Week Name, Day of the Month Number, Month Name, Year Number -
  • c. = circa - meaning: "Around, round about, about. The prep. is often used in Eng. with dates, as circa 1400 (c 1400)." (Oxford English Dictionary)
  • Items with a greenish background are publications 
[ABG]
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