A Bahá'í Glossary
Advanced
__________
 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 
 About     Appellations     Bibliographies     Calendars   Chronology     Contact   
 Diacritic Guide      Houses of Worship      Numbers      Pronunciation Guide      Site Map 
__________
Islamic Calendar
___________________
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used (often alongside the Gregorian calendar) to date events in many Muslim countries. It is also used by Muslims to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was retrospectively established as the Islamic New Year of AD 622. During that year, Muḥammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form (سَنة هِجْريّة, abbreviated هـ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH ("Before the Hijra").
 
Months
Four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred: Rajab (7), and the three consecutive months of Dhū al-Qa'dah (11), Dhu al-Ḥijjah (12) and Muḥarram (1). As the lunar calendar lags behind the solar calendar by about ten days every Gregorian year, months of the Islamic calendar fall in different parts of the Gregorian calendar each year. The cycle repeats every 33 lunar years.
No. Name Arabic Meaning Note
1 Muḥarram ٱلْمُحَرَّم forbidden A sacred month, so called because battle and all kinds of fighting are forbidden (ḥarām) during this month. Muḥarram includes 'Āshūrā', the tenth day.
2 Ṣafar صَفَر void Supposedly named thus because pre-Islamic Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food. Another account relates that they used to loot the houses of their enemies after defeating them in battle, leaving nothing behind.
3 Rabī' al-awwal رَبِيع ٱلْأَوَّل the first spring Also means to graze, because cattle were grazed during this month. Also a very holy month of celebration for many Muslims, as it was the month the Prophet Muḥammad was born.
4 Rabī' ath-thānī رَبِيع ٱلْآخِر the second spring
5 Jumādá al-ūlá جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأُولَىٰ the first of parched land Often considered the pre-Islamic summer. Jumādá may also be related to a verb meaning "to freeze" and another account relates that water would freeze during this time of year.
6 Jumādá al-ākhirah جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْآخِرَة the last of parched land
7 Rajab رَجَب respect, honour This is the second sacred month in which fighting is forbidden. Rajab may also be related to a verb meaning "to remove", so called because pre-Islamic Arabs would remove the heads of their spears and refrain from fighting.
8 Sha'bān شَعْبَان scattered Marked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water. Sha'bān may also be related to a verb meaning "to be in between two things". Another account relates that it was called thus because the month lies between Rajab and Ramaḍān.
9 Ramaḍān رَمَضَان burning heat Burning is related to fasting as in empty stomach one's worldly desire will burn. Supposedly so called because of high temperatures caused by the excessive heat of the sun. Ramaḍān is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast from pre-dawn till sunset and should give charity to the poor and needy.
10 Shawwāl شَوَّال raised She-camels would normally be in calf at this time of year and raise their tails.
11 Dhū al-Qa'dah ذُو ٱلْقَعْدَة the one of truce/sitting This is a holy month during which war is banned. People are allowed to defend themselves if attacked.
12 Dhū al-Ḥijjah ذُو ٱلْحِجَّة the one of pilgrimage During this month Muslim pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafah takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on sunset of the twelfth, and during which war is banned.
 
Days of the Week
In Arabic, the "first day" of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week. The Islamic weekdays, like those in the Hebrew and Bahá'í calendars, begin at sunset. The Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers (see vesper), which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on "gathering day" (Yawm al-Jum'ah, yawm يوم meaning "day") which corresponds with Friday.
Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day of rest. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday (e.g., Egypt, Saudi Arabia) or Thursday and Friday as official weekends, during which offices are closed; other countries (e.g., Iran) choose to make Friday alone a day of rest. A few others (e.g., Turkey, Pakistan, Morocco, Nigeria) have adopted the Saturday-Sunday weekend while making Friday a working day with a long midday break to allow time off for worship.
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Name (Yawm)
al-Aḥad
(Yawm)
al-Ithnayn
(Yawm)
ath-Thulāthā'
(Yawm)
al-Arba'ā'
(Yawm)
al-Khamīs
(Yawm)
al-Jum'ah
(Yawm)
as-Sabt
Arabic الأحد الإثنين الثلاثاء الأربعاء الخميس الجمعة السبت
Meaning First day Second day Third day Fourth day Fifth day Gathering day Day of Rest
 
Notable dates
Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:
  • 1 Muharram: Islamic New Year.
  • 10 Muharram: Day of Ashura. For Sunnis, the crossing of the Red Sea by Moses occurred on this day. For both Shias and Sunnis, the martyrdom of Ḥusayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muḥammad, and his followers.
  • 12 Rabi al-Awwal: Mawlid or Birth of the Prophet for Sunnis.
  • 17 Rabi al-Awwal: Mawlid for Shias.
  • 27 Rajab: Isra and Mi'raj for the majority of Muslims.
  • 15 Sha'ban: Mid-Sha'ban, or Night of Forgiveness. For Twelvers, also the birthday of Muḥammad al-Mahdi, the Twelfth Imam.
  • 1 Ramadan: First day of fasting.
  • 27 Ramadan: Nuzul al-Qur'an. The most probable day Muḥammad received the first verses of the Quran. (17 Ramadan in Indonesia and Malaysia)
  • Last third of Ramadan which includes Laylat al-Qadr.
  • 1 Shawwal: Eid ul-Fitr.
  • 8-13 Dhu al-Hijjah: The Hajj to Mecca.
  • 9 Dhu al-Hijjah: Day of Arafa.
  • 10 Dhu al-Hijjah: Eid al-Adha.
Days considered important predominantly for Shia Muslims:
  • 13 Rajab: Birthday of Ali ibn Abi Talib
  • 21 Ramadan: Martyrdom of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
  • 3 Sha'ban: Birthday of Ḥusayn ibn Ali.
  • 9 Rabi' al-Awwal: Eid-e-Shuja' (Revenge taken by Mukhtar al-Thaqafi).
Days considered important for Sunni Muslims (especially in India & parts of Asia):
  • 6 Rajab: Urs of Moinuddin Chishti. Generally the sixth day of every month is celebrated and observed as Chatthi.
  • 11 Rabi' al-Akhir: Urs of Abdul-Qadir Gilani. Generally the 11th day of every month is celebrated and observed as Gyarvi.
Wikipedia - Islamic Calendar ]
___________________
See also:
 
__________
 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 
 About     Appellations     Bibliographies     Calendars   Chronology     Contact   
 Diacritic Guide      Houses of Worship      Numbers      Pronunciation Guide      Site Map 
__________

Last Update:  
 
© 156 - 178 B.E. (A.D. 1999 - 2022)
Sponsored by
A Bahá'í Glossary Oelwein Bahá'í Group
__________
Hosting
provided by
Visitor Stats
provided by
Security
provided by
Search engine
provided by
Dream Host statcounter
Positive SSL freefind
__________