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Christian Calendar
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The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.
It was a refinement to the Julian calendar involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe. Protestants and Eastern Orthodox countries continued to use the traditional Julian calendar and adopted the Gregorian reform, one by one, after a time, at least for civil purposes and for the sake of convenience in international trade. The last European country to adopt the reform was Greece, in 1923. Many (but not all) countries that have traditionally used the Julian calendar, or the Islamic or other religious calendars, have come to adopt the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.
Gregorian years are identified by consecutive year numbers. The cycles repeat completely every 146,097 days, which equals 400 years. Of these 400 years, 303 are regular years of 365 days and 97 are leap years of 366 days. A mean calendar year is 365 97/400 days = 365.2425 days, or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes and 12 seconds.
. . . . the new calendar was implemented on the date specified . . . with Julian Thursday, 4 October 1582, being followed by Gregorian Friday, 15 October 1582.
 
Months
The Gregorian calendar continued to employ the Julian months, which have Latinate names and irregular numbers of days:
  • January (31 days), from Latin mēnsis Iānuārius, "Month of Janus", the Roman god of gates, doorways, beginnings and endings
  • February (28 days in common and 29 in leap years), from Latin mēnsis Februārius, "Month of the Februa", the Roman festival of purgation and purification, cognate with fever, the Etruscan death god Februus ("Purifier"), and the PIE word for sulfur
  • March (31 days), from Latin mēnsis Mārtius, "Month of Mars", the Roman war god
  • April (30 days), from Latin mēnsis AprÄ«lis, of uncertain meaning but usually derived from some form of the verb aperire ("to open") or the name of the goddess Aphrodite
  • May (31 days), from Latin mēnsis Māius, "Month of Maia", a Roman vegetation goddess whose name is cognate with Latin magnus ("great") and English major
  • June (30 days), from Latin mēnsis IÅ«nius, "Month of Juno", the Roman goddess of marriage, childbirth, and rule
  • July (31 days), from Latin mēnsis IÅ«lius, "Month of Julius Caesar", the month of Caesar's birth, instituted in 44 BC as part of his calendrical reforms
  • August (31 days), from Latin mēnsis Augustus, "Month of Augustus", instituted by Augustus in 8 BC in agreement with July and from the occurrence during the month of several important events during his rise to power
  • September (30 days), from Latin mēnsis september, "seventh month", from its position in the Roman calendar before 153 BC
  • October (31 days), from Latin mēnsis octōber, "eighth month", from its position in the Roman calendar before 153 BC
  • November (30 days), from Latin mēnsis november, "ninth month", from its position in the Roman calendar before 153 BC
  • December (31 days), from Latin mēnsis december, "tenth month", from its position in the Roman calendar before 153 BC
Wikipedia - Christian Calendar ]
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List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country. For explanation, see the article about the Gregorian calendar.
If not stated otherwise, it concerns the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar by the civil authorities. In religious sources it could be that the Julian calendar was used for a longer period of time, in particular on the Protestant and Eastern Orthodox side. The historic area does not necessarily match the present-day area or country. The column 'present country' only provides a logic search entry.
This table is sorted by date. To see list sorted by other columns see: List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country
Present Country Historic Area After Follows Particulars
Italy 1582-10-04 1582-10-15
Poland Poland 1582-10-04 1582-10-15 local resistance
Portugal Portuguese Empire 1582-10-04 1582-10-15
Spain Spanish Empire 1582-10-04 1582-10-15
France France 1582-12-09 1582-12-20 without Alsace and Lorraine
France Sedan 1582-12-09 1582-12-20
Netherlands Brabant 1582-12-14 1582-12-25 edict of Francis, Duke of Anjou followed
Belgium Flanders 1582-12-14 1582-12-25 edict of Francis, Duke of Anjou followed
Netherlands States General 1582-12-14 1582-12-25 edict of Francis, Duke of Anjou followed
Netherlands Zeeland 1582-12-14 1582-12-25 edict of Francis, Duke of Anjou followed
Belgium Southern Netherlands 1582-12-20 1582-12-31 or one day later; areas under Spanish rule: Artois, occupied Brabant, occupied Flanders, Hainaut, Limburg, Luxemburg, Namur
Netherlands Holland 1583-01-01 1583-01-12 edict of Francis, Duke of Anjou followed later on
Belgium Liège 1583-02-10 1583-02-21 edict of Philip II of Spain followed
Netherlands Groningen (city) 1583-03-01 1583-03-12 edict of Philip II of Spain was: 10 followed by 21 February (proclaimed later)
Lithuania Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1585-12-21 1586-01-01
Netherlands Groningen (city) 1594-11-19 1594-11-10 return to the Julian calendar
Poland Duchy of Prussia 1612-08-22 1612-09-02 southern Ducal Prussia is now part of Poland
Lithuania Duchy of Prussia 1612-08-22 1612-09-02 north eastern Ducal Prussia is now part of Lithuania
Russia Duchy of Prussia 1612-08-22 1612-09-02 northern Ducal Prussia is now part of Russia
Latvia Courland 1617-00-00 1617-00-00 ?
Sweden Swedish Empire 1700-02-28 1700-03-01 incl. Finland
Netherlands Gelderland 1700-06-30 1700-07-12
Netherlands Overijssel 1700-11-30 1700-12-12
Netherlands Utrecht 1700-11-30 1700-12-12
Netherlands Frisia 1700-12-31 1701-01-12
Netherlands Groningen (province) 1700-12-31 1701-01-12 Stad and Ommelanden
Switzerland Switzerland, Protestant parts 1700-12-31 1701-01-12 Basel, Bern, Mulhouse, Sargans, Schaffhausen, Geneva and Zürich
Netherlands Drenthe 1701-04-30 1701-05-12
Sweden Swedish Empire 1712-02-30 1712-03-01 incl. Finland; return to the Julian calendar
United Kingdom British Empire 1752-09-02 1752-09-14
Sweden Sweden 1753-02-17 1753-03-01 incl. Finland
Latvia Courland 1796-02-07 1796-01-28 return to the Julian calendar
Lithuania Lithuania Governorate 1800-01-12 1800-01-01 return to the Julian calendar
Latvia Courland 1915-05-12 1915-05-25
Lithuania Kovno and Vilna Governorates 1915-05-12 1915-05-25
Latvia Livland 1915-08-22 1917-09-05
Russia Russia 1918-01-31 1918-02-14
Estonia Estonia 1918-02-15 1918-03-01
Greece Greece 1923-02-15 1923-03-01 except Athos
Present Country Historic Area After Follows Particulars
Wikipedia - List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country ]
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See also:
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Julian to Gregorian
Julian_to_Gregorian_Date_Change
This is a visual example of the official date change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian.
 [ Photo Credits ] [ Wikipedia - Julian Calendar ]
 
 
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