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Diacritic Guide
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Diacritic
A diacritic is a a mark near or through an orthographic or phonetic character or combination of characters indicating a phonetic value different from that given the unmarked or otherwise marked element.
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Diacritic and Special Character Keystrokes
To help write articles with quotes from the Bahá'í Writings containing words which have have been transliterated from Persian or Arabic (like Bahá'í) and contain letters with diacritic characters, the list of Diacritic Characters Used in Bahá'í Writings may prove useful.
Other Common Diacritic Characters and Special Characters are listed below. Many of these will be useful in various writing projects, such as a résumé.
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Diacritic Characters Used in Bahá'í Writings
Letters with Underscore Letters with Under Dot Letters with Acute Accent
C̲h̲ c̲h̲ D̲h̲ d̲h̲ G̲h̲ g̲h̲ K̲h̲ k̲h̲ S̲h̲ s̲h̲ T̲h̲ t̲h̲ Z̲h̲ z̲h̲
Á á Í í Ú ú
 
The underscored letters are the easiest. In most applications just select (highlight) the letters and type Ctrl+u. In HTML, it gets a bit tricky when you are making a link as well as underscoring. The tags can easily get intermixed and creates a mess. Just look at the code and it is easy to sort it all out.
There is another way to deal with the underscored letters. Place the Unicode ̲ behind each character in the source code. Below is a chart from which you can copy and paste.
Character C̲h̲ D̲h̲ G̲h̲ K̲h̲
Unicode C̲h̲ D̲h̲ G̲h̲ K̲h̲
Character c̲h̲ d̲h̲ g̲h̲ k̲h̲
Unicode c̲h̲ d̲h̲ g̲h̲ k̲h̲
Character S̲h̲ T̲h̲ Z̲h̲
Unicode S̲h̲ T̲h̲ Z̲h̲
Character s̲h̲ t̲h̲ z̲h̲
Unicode s̲h̲ t̲h̲ z̲h̲
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Under dot characters are weird. In MS Word simply type the letter then type Alt+0803. This does NOT work in WordPerfect, Excel, Notepad, DreamWeaver or Gmail. What does work is copy and paste in everything but WordPerfect which gives you ḍ instead of ḍ. If you have a current version of any of these applications, please try the Alt+0803 to see if it works. I am running WordPerfect X5 and Dreamweaver CS3 - 2008 vintage.
The best method for HTML is to use the Unicode Encoding. Below are the Unicodes to use for the dot below characters. The easiest way to enter them is to copy and paste them in code view. If you type in the code, the & turns into & before you can get the #x typed. Then you have to go back and delete the 'amp' or the code will not work. As if you didn't know.
All the characters are enlarged to make the details more visible.
Character
Unicode Ḍ Ḥ Ṣ Ṭ Ẓ
Character
Unicode ḍ ḥ ṣ ṭ ẓ
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For the Acute Accent Characters, the tables below show the applications in which the keystrokes work and then the keystrokes.
Application / Format Filename
Extension
MS Word .doc, .docx
WordPerfect .wpd
Wordpad .txt, .rtf, .doc
Notepad .txt
Rich Text Format .rtf
MS Excel .xls, .xlsx
Adobe Acrobat Reader .pdf
Hyper Text Markup Language .htm, .html
Vowel Description Keystrokes Unicode
Á Latin Capital Letter A with Acute Alt+0193 Á
Í Latin Capital Letter I with Acute Alt+0205 Í
Ú Latin Capital Letter U with Acute Alt+0218 Ú
á Latin Small Letter A with Acute Alt+0225 á
í Latin Small Letter I with Acute Alt+0237 í
ú Latin Small Letter U with Acute Alt+0250 ú
 
The characters usually copy and paste cross-format as well. However, they do NOT travel well in the text or subject of an email. For reasons beyond the ken of mortal mind, most email servers turn diacritic characters into cartoon cursing. If you need to use these characters in an email, you are better off putting the message into a document (any above format) and attaching it to an email.
Using these keystrokes will help insure that your article will look the same online, and downloaded in a .pdf file as it does in your original document. The characters are part of the Extended ASCII Standard.
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Diacritic marks used in this Glossary which originated from languages other than Arabic or Farsi (Persian):
Description Letters Pronunciation
Latin Letters with Acute
Á á Í í Ú ú
See: Pronunciation Guide or Wikipedia Acute Accent
Latin Letters with Cedilla
Ç ç Ţ ţ
See: Wikipedia Cedilla
Latin Letters with Diaeresis
Ä ä Ë ë Ï ï Ö ö Ü ü
 
Latin Letter Eth
ð
t̲h̲ as in then, either, this (IPA [ð])
Latin Letter Ligatures
Æ æ Ǣ ǣ Ǽ ǽ
See: Wikipedia Æ
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Other Common Diacritic Characters
Diacritic
Character
Description Keystrokes Unicode
À Latin Capital Letter A with Grave Alt+0192 À
Á Latin Capital Letter A with Acute Alt+0193 Á
 Latin Capital Letter A with Circumflex Alt+0194 Â
à Latin Capital Letter A with Tilde Alt+0195 Ã
Ä Latin Capital Letter A with Diaeresis Alt+0196 Ä
Å Latin Capital Letter A with Ring Above Alt+0197 Å
Æ Latin Capital Letter AE Alt+0198 Æ
Ǣ Latin Capital Letter AE with Macron   Ǣ
Ǽ Latin Capital Letter AE with Acute   Ǽ
Ç Latin Capital Letter C with Cedilla   Ç
È Latin Capital Letter E with Grave Alt+0200 È
É Latin Capital Letter E with Acute Alt+0201 É
Ê Latin Capital Letter E with Circumflex Alt+0202 Ê
Ë Latin Capital Letter E with Diaeresis Alt+0203 Ë
Latin Capital Letter Eth   ᴆ
Ì Latin Capital Letter I with Grave Alt+0204 Ì
Í Latin Capital Letter I with Acute Alt+0205 Í
Î Latin Capital Letter I with Circumflex Alt+0206 Î
Ï Latin Capital Letter I with Diaeresis Alt+0207 Ï
Ñ Latin Capital Letter N with Tilde Alt+0209 Ñ
Ò Latin Capital Letter O with Grave Alt+0210 Ò
Ó Latin Capital Letter O with Acute Alt+0211 Ó
Ô Latin Capital Letter O with Circumflex Alt+0212 Ô
Õ Latin Capital Letter O with Tilde Alt+0213 Õ
Ö Latin Capital Letter O with Diaeresis Alt+0214 Ö
Œ Latin Capital Letter OE   Œ
Latin Capital Letter Sharp S   ẞ
Ţ Latin Capital Letter T with Cedilla   Ţ
Ù Latin Capital Letter U with Grave Alt+0217 Ù
Ú Latin Capital Letter U with Acute Alt+0218 Ú
Û Latin Capital Letter U with Circumflex Alt+0219 Û
Ü Latin Capital Letter U with Diaeresis Alt+0220 Ü
Ý Latin Capital Letter Y with Acute Alt+0221 Ý
à Latin Small Letter A with Grave Alt+0224 à
á Latin Small Letter A with Acute Alt+0225 á
â Latin Small Letter A with Circumflex Alt+0226 â
ã Latin Small Letter A with Tilde Alt+0227 ã
ä Latin Small Letter A with Diaeresis Alt+0228 ä
å Latin Small Letter A with Ring Above Alt+0229 å
æ Latin Small Letter ae Alt+0230 æ
ǣ Latin Small Letter ae with Macron   ǣ
ǽ Latin Small Letter ae with Acute   ǽ
ç Latin Small Letter C with Cedilla   ç
è Latin Small Letter E with Grave Alt+0232 è
é Latin Small Letter E with Acute Alt+0233 é
ê Latin Small Letter E with Circumflex Alt+0234 ê
ë Latin Small Letter E with Diaeresis Alt+0235 ë
ð Latin Small Letter Eth In code ð
ì Latin Small Letter I with Grave Alt+0236 ì
í Latin Small Letter I with Acute Alt+0237 í
î Latin Small Letter I with Circumflex Alt+0238 î
ï Latin Small Letter I with Diaeresis Alt+0239 ï
ñ Latin Small Letter N with Tilde Alt+0241 ñ
ò Latin Small Letter O with Grave Alt+0242 ò
ó Latin Small Letter O with Acute Alt+0243 ó
ô Latin Small Letter O with Circumflex Alt+0244 ô
õ Latin Small Letter O with Tilde Alt+0245 õ
ö Latin Small Letter O with Diaeresis Alt+0246 ö
œ Latin Small Letter Oe   œ
ţ Latin Small Letter T with Cedilla   ţ
ß Latin Small Letter Sharp S   ß
ù Latin Small Letter U with Grave Alt+0249 ù
ú Latin Small Letter U with Acute Alt+0250 ú
û Latin Small Letter U with Circumflex Alt+0251 û
ü Latin Small Letter U with Diaeresis Alt+0252 ü
ý Latin Small Letter Y with Acute Alt+0253 ý
ÿ Latin Small Letter Y with Diaeresis Alt+0255 ÿ
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Special Characters
Special
Character
Description Keystrokes Unicode Usage
@ At sign   @ you@email.com
Euro Sign Alt+0128 € Symbol for European currency.
ƒ Latin Small Letter F with Hook Alt+0131 ƒ Used to indicate "Formula" in mathematics.
Ellipsis Alt+0133 … Used to show the omission of words in a sentence
Dagger Alt+0134 † Used to indicate a footnote.
Double Dagger Alt+0135 ‡ Used to indicate another footnote.
ˆ Circumflex Accent Alt+0136 ˆ Diacritic.
Per Mille Alt+0137 ‰ Parts per thousand
Single Guillemet or Left Angle Alt+0139 ‹ Used where the ‹ character (above the comma on keyboard) could be interpreted by a browser as a code tag.
Bullet Alt+0149 • Used in making unordered lists.
En dash Alt+0150 – Used where a hyphen or dash could be interpreted by a computer as a minus sign.
Em dash Alt+0151 — Used instead of a double hyphen or double dash.
˜ Small Tilde Alt+0152 ˜ Diacritic.
Trade Mark Alt+0153 ™ ABG TM Is a trade mark of A Bahá'í Glossary.
> Single Guillemet or Right Angle Alt+0155 > Used where the > character (above the period on keyboard) could be interpreted by a browser as a code tag.
ƒ No-Break Space Alt+0160 ƒ Used to keep words or phrases on one line without wrapping. Used mostly in web pages.
¡ Inverted Exclamation Mark Alt+0161 ¡ Used at the beginning of an exclamatory sentence in Spanish.
¢ Cent Sign Alt+0162 ¢ This makes no ¢.
£ Pound Sign Alt+0163 £ £64 question.
§ Section Sign   § She had a C§
© Copyright Alt+0169 © ABG TM© 1999-2018 by A Bahá'í Glossary.
ª Double Guillemet or Left Angle Alt+0171 ª They went ª that-a-way!
® Registered Alt+0174 ® ABG TM® Is a registered trade mark of A Bahá'í Glossary.
° Degree Sign Alt+0176 ° 98.6°
± Plus-Minus Sign Alt+0177 ± We have 2 dozen ± 3. (21 to 27)
¹ Superscript 1   ¹ Used for footnotes¹
² Superscript 2, Square, Squared Alt+0178 ² 𝜋r². 𝜋rnot². 𝜋rround. Caker².
³ Superscript 3, Cubic, Cubed Alt+0179 ³ 27³ ft. = 1³ yd.
´ Acute Accent Alt+0180 ´ Diacritic.
Pilcrow Sign, Paragraph Sign Alt+0182 ¶ To indicate a paragraph.
· Middot Alt+0183 · Used in making unordered lists.
» Double Guillemet or Right Angle Alt+0187 » They went » that-a-way!
¼ Vulgar Fraction One Quarter Alt+0188 ¼ Prettier than 1/4.
½ Vulgar Fraction One Half Alt+0189 ½ Prettier than 1/2.
¾ Vulgar Fraction Three Quarters Alt+0190 ¾ Prettier than 3/4.
Vulgar Fraction One Seventh ⅐ ⅐ Prettier than 1/7
Vulgar Fraction One Ninth ⅑ ⅑ Prettier than 1/9
Vulgar Fraction One Tenth ⅒ ⅒ Prettier than 1/10
Vulgar Fraction One Third ⅓ ⅓ Prettier than 1/3
Vulgar Fraction Two Thirds ⅔ ⅔ Prettier than 2/3
Vulgar Fraction One Fifth ⅕ ⅕ Prettier than 1/5
Vulgar Fraction Two Fifths ⅖ ⅖ Prettier than 2/5
Vulgar Fraction Three Fifths ⅗ ⅗ Prettier than 2/5
Vulgar Fraction Four Fifths ⅘ ⅘ Prettier than 4/5
Vulgar Fraction One Sixth ⅙ ⅙ Prettier than 1/6
Vulgar Fraction Five Sixths ⅚ ⅚ Prettier than 5/6
Vulgar Fraction One Eighth ⅛ ⅛ Prettier than 1/8
Vulgar Fraction Three Eighths ⅜ ⅜ Prettier than 3/8
Vulgar Fraction Five Eighths ⅝ ⅝ Prettier than 5/8
Vulgar Fraction Seven Eighths ⅞ ⅞ Prettier than 7/8
Fraction Numerator One ⅟ ⅟ Prettier than 1/x
¿ Inverted Question Mark Alt+0191 ¿ Used at the beginning of an interrogatory sentence in Spanish.
× Multiplication Sign Alt+0215 × Sometimes used instead of the *.
÷ Divide Sign Alt+0247 ÷ Sometimes used instead of the /.
Ø Cipher, Zero   Ø Used when differentiating between
O (oh) and 0 (zero) is essential
ø Cipher, Zero Alt+0248 ø Used when differentiating between
O (oh) and 0 (zero) is essential
Numero Sign Alt+8470 № Used instead of No.
𝜋 Pi   𝜋 𝜋r². 𝜋rnot². 𝜋rround. Caker².
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